Posts Tagged ‘Evil Opposition’

h1

Opposition Overcome…

June 2, 2012

Part 6: Opposition Overcome

In the last post of this series, we will examine the similarities present in the three texts we have discussed previously in 2 Samuel 15, Isaiah 14 and the Judas narrative.

There is a consistent picture in Scripture of our Savior King: from the Seed of the woman which will crush the serpent, to the blessing of nations in Abraham, the anointed one, and suffering servant. With this consistent glimmer of light has come a shadow of opposition, equally determined, equally consistent, but ultimately futile. As we review the three texts we see in three different time periods, three representations of God’s anointed, three forms of opposition, but one consistent outcome. The figure below will illustrate visually the similarities:

20120810-113051.jpg

These texts speak to their periods and they serve to interpret and add layers of meaning on each other. King David serves as a type for the Messiah King Jesus. Absalom serves as a type for Judas. That Satan is explicitly or implicitly present in the narratives helps to locate both narratives in the larger cosmic theater of God’s glory where Satan seeks to oppose God. As the serpent will be crushed, and Satan will be cast down, so too will all those who seek to oppose God’s glory through His anointed. This hope is not lost on David as he writes in Psalm 3:

O LORD, how many are my foes!

Many are rising against me;

many are saying of my soul,

there is no salvation for him in God. Selah

But you, O LORD, are a shield about me,

my glory, and the lifter of my head.

(Psalm 3:1-3 ESV)

;

David records these would while being pursued by Absalom. Even in this dire condition, in an environment rife with uncertainty, David’s hope is in the Yahweh. He knows the fate that awaits the wicked, that God will “strike all my enemies on the cheek, and shatter the teeth of the wicked.” (Ps. 3:7) The heads of the wicked will be crushed for “salvation belongs to the Yahweh.” Those who make it their chief end to oppose God, are made an end in their opposition.

“A good story requires a beginning, a middle and an ending, a narrative whole. A well constructed plot, therefore, must neither begin nor end at haphazard, but conform to these principles.”[1] A clear beginning and a clear end serve to clarify the overall meaning of a text.[2] Here we see in these texts scattered across the overall narrative of scripture a picture of both God’s anointed and His evil opposition. Both strains of the narrative share beginnings, means of operations, and chief ends. The chief end of God’s anointed is glory in salvation through judgment[3]. The chief end of evil is to oppose God and mar His creation.[4] The anointed end in glory, those in opposition end in head crushing defeat and obscurity. From the beginning, God has made clear that such opposing efforts are bound to bring about death and distance from glory. God overcomes the narrative of pride, deceit, self-exaltation, murder and opposition with His raw creation-wielding power. He gives us a humble suffering servant, who is the way, the truth, God-exalting, life -giver, and crushes the head of the opposition. Through God’s command of the narrative, in both prediction and practice, we gain hope in the face of opposition. Even if thousands set opposition around us, we will not be afraid, for Yahweh sustains and He is our Salvation.[5]


[1] Aristotle from his Poetics quoted in Stephen G. Dempster. Dominion and Dynasty: A Theology of the Hebrew Bible Downers Grove: IVP Apollos. 2003. 45.

[2] Dempster, 45

[3] “God’s ultimate purpose is the main concern of the biblical authors, even when they are describing subordinate ends on the way to the chief end.” James Hamilton God’s Glory in Salvation Through Judgment: A Biblical Theology. Wheaton: Crossway. 2010 560.

[4] We might think of God’s prophecy concerning the serpent, that the seed of the serpent would pursue the seed of the woman, consistently bruising his heel; attempting to mar God’s creation and slow His purpose. Gen 3:15

[5] Psalm 3:5-6

Advertisements
h1

The Mighty Have Fallen: Evil Opposition in Isaiah 14…

May 29, 2012

Part 4 Evil Opposition in Isaiah 14…

In the past three posts we have introduced the concept that there is a textual and thematic connection in scripture which serve to give us a picture of the means and method of Evil’s opposition to God and His chosen Messiah.  We have looked at the characteristics of Evil opposition in Genesis and throughout the Old Testament, and we have examined a heightened type of this opposition in the Absalom Narrative in 2 Samuel 15.  Now we turn our attention to the presence of this opposition in Isaiah 14.

Isaiah 14:12-20 is often used as a text to describe the character and even origins of Satan.[1]  For our purposes we will assume the majority position that this passage in Isaiah, while directed at the king of Babylon, is also alluding to the fallen one, Satan.[2]

The passage comes in the middle of a taunt that Israel is to direct, by order of Yahweh, at the king of Babylon.  Here Babylon is the force in opposition to God’s anointed.  Many of the elements needed for evil opposition are present.  Pride, self-exaltation (14:13), murder (14:17) and a certain demise. (14:19)  Verse 19 shall be our primary focus.  I maintain that Isaiah has Absalom prefigured in this passage and especially in verse 19.  While one could certainly argue that the pride and self-exaltation on display would be common to any number of opposition narratives within the Bible; verse 19 serves to narrow our focus and tie this text to Absalom’s narrative.

Verse 19 is as follows:

       “But you have been cast out of your tomb

Like a rejected branch,

Clothed with the slain who are pierced with a sword,

Who go down to the stones of the pit,

Like a trampled corpse.

(Isaiah 14:19 NASB)

While the Hebrew text does not support many lexical links between this passage and 2 Samuel 18, we will explore the conceptual similarities at work.  In Isaiah, we have one who is cast out; who is like a “loathed branch, clothed with the slain;”  who is “pierced with a sword;” and is thrown down, buried in a pit, with stones.  Within this verse we see a four elements that the two texts share in common.  First we can see that the figure is cast out. Absalom was cast out as he fled from the scene of battle. (2 Sam 18:9)  Second, Samuel describes Absalom as being caught in the branch of a tree, figuratively clothing the branch of a tree with his slain body.  Third, He is pierced with a sword by Joab.  Fourth Absalom is buried in a pit covered with stones. (2 Sam 18:15,17)  Ultimately he is denied the right to be buried like a king, failing to be united with his royal heritage in burial. (Isa. 14:20)

These similarities are striking and serve to add meaning to both the text in 2 Samuel and this text in Isaiah, which allows the careful reader to see a greater nuance in the reproach against the King of Babylon.  Though he is like Satan in his pride and Absalom in his actions, he shares the fate of both.  He will be cast down, and meet his end like those who are a “loathed branch, clothed with the slain,” “pierced with the sword”, “buried in the pit.”  A certain end for one who opposes Yahweh.

Is Isaiah 14 speaking of Satan when it describes one “fallen from heaven… cut down to the earth…”? Most likely yes.  Is Isaiah 14 recording a taunt from Israel meant for the king of Babylon? Yes.  Is it also giving us a picture of evil opposition as seen in the Absalom narrative?  I believe that it is.  But it is also giving the reader a picture of another opposition scene.  I believe that both the Absalom narrative and the Isaiah passage, in addition to reflecting meaning on each other, serve to craft an image of a greater opposition yet to come.  We will now look how both of these passages serve to reflect and inform the narrative of Christ’s betrayal at the hand of Judas.


[1] “It is possible that there is a reference to the fall of Satan… Isaiah uses language that seems too strong to be referring to any merely human king.” Wayne Grudem Systematic Theology: An Introduction to Biblical Doctrine.  Grand Rapids: Zondervan. 2000. 413.

[2] It is true that some commentators disagree with this assessment and view the exalted language as mere poetic imagery, (See John D.W. Watts Word Biblical Commentary on Isaiah 1-33, Waco: Word Pub. 1985. 212.)  Watts argues that there is little linking the account of the fall of Satan in Rev 12 with the description here in Isa 14.  It seems more plausible that this passage as pointing to Satan, “not directly but indirectly, much like the way the kings of the line of David point to Christ.” (See Geoffrey W. Grogan. Expositor’s Bible Commentary Vol 6, Isaiah. Grand Rapids: Zondervan. 1986. 105)

h1

The Character of Evil…

May 25, 2012

 

The character of evil opposition to God and His anointed is marked in the narrative of scripture by a source, a means, and a certain end.  The source of evil opposition to God is seen in pride.  Pride is the root of evil.  Those who oppose God and his anointed are in essence saying that they know better, and that God’s way is not good enough.  This is seen in the opening chapters of Genesis, where the “crafty” serpent puts forth an alternative command to God’s law.  Creation was given the best and utmost good to worship in God, when that good was rejected for the lesser worship of self, pride appears.  “Pride lies behind all transgressions,”[1] and is the key indicator of evil’s presence.  Good angels, and arguably the good man Adam (pre-fall) remained free of sin and evil as long as they would, “cleave to Him who supremely is.”  “If we ask the cause of the misery and of the bad, it occurs to us, and not unreasonably, that they are miserable because they have forsaken Him who supremely is.”[2] It was pride that led Eve and Adam to trust in their own judgment rather than to listen to God.

God curses the Serpent and prescribes a curse that will dictate the course of history.  Enmity will exist between the seed of the serpent and the seed of the woman.  This enmity or opposition will be rooted in pride, but will be carried out in a number of ways.  While source of evil opposition is singular; the means it uses to accomplish its mission are many.

For our purposes we are going to focus on three means by which evil opposes God and His creation: self-exaltation, deceit, and murder.  One could argue that within chapters 3-4 in Genesis we see all three of these played out.  Adam and Eve seek to exalt themselves and be like God, knowing good and evil. (3:5) The Serpent deceives Adam and Eve. (3:4,13)  Cain succumbs to sin, seeking to avenge his honor (exaltation), and murders his brother (4:8), and then attempts to deceive God. (4:9)  We see these same means at work ad nauseum before the flood as the whole of mankind became irreconcilably wicked.  After the flood, in the persons of Nimrod (exaltation; Gen 11:4); Jacob (deceit; Gen 27:30-35); Joseph’s brothers (murder, deceit; Gen 37); Pharaoh’s opposition to God’s people (murder Ex 1:16; exaltation 14:1-31) to name just a few.  Evil is sourced in pride, it is carried out by means of self-exaltation, deceit and murder, and it has as its end the opposition of God.

If the chief end of man is glorify God and enjoy Him forever, then it should of little surprise that the chief end of evil is to oppose God and to rob His creation of joy.[3]  This end, however is two-fold; it is a goal and a destination.  It is a goal in that from pride comes the desire to exalt one’s self, to deceive others and murder to achieve the goal of opposing God.  But this end is also a destination as all those who oppose God’s anointed are cursed and destined to be crushed.  Those whose end it is to oppose God, will in fact, meet their end in the process of opposition.

God prophesies as much to the serpent about its seed.[4]  God promises as much about those who oppose Abram.[5]  God displays as much to the wicked in Sodom, Pharaoh in Egypt, Dathan against Moses; the Philistines in Canaan etc.[6]  Those who act in pride, through self-exaltation, deceit, and murder to oppose God, will be crushed and meet their end. These threads of action are woven throughout the bible.  At times, as in the above examples, only one or two threads are present.  But when multiple threads are present a specific picture of opposition emerges and evil can clearly be seen.  Nowhere in the Old Testament text are more threads present than in the narrative of Absalom’s opposition of David.

In the next post, Part 3, We will focus on the David and Absalom narrative and pick at the threads to unravel the story.


 

[1] Schwarz, 117.

[2]  Augustine of Hippo, The City of God, Kindle Electronic Edition: Location 7298-7300.

[3] The Westminster Shorter Catechism 1647, Question 1:. What is the chief end of man? Answer: Man’s chief end is to glorify God,  and to enjoy him for ever.

[4] Genesis 3:15 “He (the seed of the woman) will bruise your head, and you shall bruise him on the heal.”

[5]Genesis 12:3, “I will bless those who bless you, and the one who curses you I will curse.”

[6]Genesis 19; Exodus 14;  Numbers 16; 1 Samuel 4